• [25/03 CM 08]

    [25/03 CM 08]


    One of the first things which were done: post-war rationing. There was rationing during the war but tat continue after the war, the gvt was controlling the supplies.

    New measures:

    > 1946: National Insurance Act. Deals mainly with unemployment and its provide compensation payment. It was the first that the whole work force in the UK was covered completely by the same insurance programme. Everyone who works, not just the workers: industrial work is covered by the system but also the artisans. The state now had the responsibility to covering all the working people. One of the basic idea was a policy of full-employment: only a minority of people would be unemployed. Reversal of the policy adopted in the 1930s when unemployment was seen by gvt as an answer to the recession.

    1946: National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act → complement. Beveridge report. Provide help to workers who have an injury which make them unable to work.

    > Still in the same direction, in 1948: National Assistance Act: provide a subsistance minimum for people who couldn't pay contribution, unable to work (handicaped, unmarried mothers,...). The elderly needed supplementary benefit to live. This act finally ended the regime of the Work Houses. Those who wanted to take advantage of this benefit had to apply to the national insurance board and by 1950 there was 1.5M people who susbsisted thanks to the national insurance act programme. Those people who benefit this system were the poorest of the population.

    Fundation of the social policy system in the UK.

    Idea of “mérite”, idea of people who deserve it: the workers, from the Beveridge report. Work being the demarcation line between different way to deserving public assistance.

    > The National Health Service (NHS)
    : The last one was a programme of insurance against the lost of income, and this one is a programme of health care. Before the WWII, health provision was a patchwork of different compenent wich developed over the years; 2 way: organized by local authorities, and additionnal voluntary concerned, by friendly societies or religion institutions. In general hospital were more interested in people who could pay. There was an element of competition between the public hospital, and the voluntary non-profit making. There were also private nursing home for rich people. […]. Doctors, General Practitioners (GPs), were concentrated in upper class area, few were in the poorest areas. Retired practitioners sell his practice to the rich. Very poor people didn't have really access to medical care: only the father and husband was covered for free medical care.

     A. BEVAN. Same idea of universality as the National Insurance Acts. Everyone, not depending of how rich they are, would have access to free care. Bevan however did an incredibly difficult task: he tried to unify … . […]. Based on this political resistance Doctors argued that they didn't want to become civil servant. Most general practitioners refused to collaborate with the proposition of Bevan national health service. Dental treatment in particular costed a lot to people, were going to be free. The state was going to pay, with the taxation. The equipment the people needed would be free, consultation, everything. If you don't have enough money, and you need treatment, it would be free.

    Between 1946 and 1948 Bevan had to try to convince the BMA and people who resisted to this plan. The National Health Service Act came into operation in 1948 (while it was decided in 1946). In order to convince the doctors to collaborate Bevan had to make a number of concessions: public system, but doctors would be able to keep private bed in public hospitals. 92% of all GPs were now working for the NHS, they had to accept to be posted in some areas. Residual 8% did not collaborate and wanted to still operate on the medical market. On the 3.000 hospital of the UK, 90% collaborated. Millions of people had now the possibility to get free medical care. In 1948 when the system was officially opened to the public a lot of people went to their local doctor. This system represent the bases of the one in place nowadays. This system meant a lot to British people. Initially there were problems: all the people wanted to see a doctor, even if they didn't have anything wrong, they wanted to profit of the system. It was incredible: you could go to the doctor and don't pay for that. So people rushed to see the doctors in the beginning. Nation of hypochondriacs.

    > The state budget mainly financed the system: the problem that would create a major crisis in 1950. After a general election where the Labour Party were victorious, Bevan (Minister of Health and Housing) was forced to accept a reduction of the health care founds, in order to rearm the nation. It was a mistake to put Housing in the same Minister of the Health. Slow progress in building affordable housing for working class people. 500 000 prefabricated building were erected to answer the housing shortage after the war. In 1951 the second Labour Gvt came to an end. Other areas in which the Labour gvt launched new programmes: environment. In 1946 the Labour gvt adopted a New Towns Act.

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