• L'adjectif

     L'adjectif (p.52-57)


     > Structures pré-nominale et post-verbale

    This is a nice jacket. / She's nice.

    Tom is impatient. / Tom dated an impatient girl.

    The general, old and defeated, called back his troops.


    > Adjectifs pré-nominaux (éphithètes)

    I like flowers. → définir une sous-catéforie : I like red flowers.


    > Ordre des adjectifs : TACOM : Taille/Age/Couleur/Origine/Matière

    They met a boring young medical student.

    He was carrying a big blue metal table.

    Last year, she bought a recent German car.

    Sous-catégorie au même niveau : AND → A zebra had black and white stripes.

    Les adjectifs de nature différentes s'accumulent : Virgule → I was a short, intensive trip.


    > How, what, so, such

    How great a concert it was !

    What a great concert it was !

    It was so great a concert.

    It was such a great concert.


    > Post-verbal

    The mountain is high.

    Some giraffes were asleep.


    * Les adjectifs qui ne peuvent être qu'attribus commencent souvent par a.

    Some asleep giraffes woke up. Ne peut être utilisé comme épithète → Some sleeping giraffes...

    A l'exception de par exemple : anxious, angry,...

    Mais aussi ceux qui sont des contraires : typical / atypical


    * Ou décrivent un état de santé ou une humeur :

    The secretary is ill. The ill secretary stayed at home.

    Exception : The sick secretary stayed at home.


    The trip was long and exhausting.

    The trip was long but fascinating.

    > La place de l'adjectif peut changer le sens.

    I found grammar classes fascinating.

    = I found that grammar classes were fascinating.

    I found fascinating grammar classes.


    The late President was a good administrator.

    The President is once against late.


    Excited and happy, the winners received their medals.

    The winners, excited and happy, received their medals.

    The winners received their medals, excited and happy.


    The winners, happy, received their medals.*

    Slighly uneasy, Mark and Mary prefered to decline the invitation.


    These strange dogs are amazing !

    These dogs are strange !

    These stranges dogs...* → toujours invariable !


    This woman is 60 years old. → She is a sixty year old woman.


    > Chaque adjectif sa préposition...

    She is afraid of snakes.

    Her mother was very angry with her.

    He is very interested in cooking.

    Theyre were bound to fail their exam.

    She was opposed to opening the letter.

    She was extremelly ambitious.


    > Préfixe :

    Unhappy / disgraceful / pseudo-artistic / supernatural


    > Suffixe :

    Nom + -y : rainy, fishy

    Nom + -less : tasteless, careless

    Nom + -ful : beautiful, careful

    Nom + -ly = adjectif : friendly

    Adjectif + -ly = adverbe : nicely

    > -ic ≠ -ical

    Economic, economical / historic, historical,...

    > Adjectifs formés à partir de verbes

    This man is very interesting. Cet homme est très intéressant.

    This man is very interested. Cet homme est très intéressé.


    > Adjectifs composés :

    Adj. Ou Nom + Adjectif : This restaurant is child-friendly.

    Adj. Ou Adv. Ou Nom + V-ING :

    Her brother is a good-looking man.

    This is a heart-breaking story.

    Ad. Ou Adv Ou Nom + PARTICIPE PASSE : His girlfriend was heart-broken.

    Adh ou Adv. Ou Nom Ou Participe passé + NOM -ED : His daughter is a blue-eyed girl.


    > Adjectif substantivé = utilisé comme nom.

    Toujours invariables : the poor / the dead...

    Ex : The Irish sometimes drink too much.

    Exception : The Blacks asked for Civil rights in the 1960s. A force d'être utilisé comme nom.

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